Tag: type 2 diabetes
As a type 1 diabetic I am quite familiar (unfortunately) with the signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from lack of insulin associated with high blood levels and your body starts to produce high levels of blood acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body’s chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy.
This usually occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but DKA can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before the age of 25, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common for this age group, but it may occur at any age with both males and females are equally affected. So is DKA something that we should be worried about? Lets take a closer look!
What Causes Ketoacidosis ?
So what’s the deal when our results come back showing ketones in urine? Circumstances arise for people with type 1 diabetes when the individual does not have enough insulin, a hormone the body uses to break down sugar (glucose) in the blood for energy. When glucose is not available to feed our cells due to high blood sugars, fat is broken down and used as fuel vs glucose and this is particularly not a good thing. As fats are broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are extremely poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis.
Blood glucose levels rise (usually higher than 300 mg/dL) because the liver makes glucose to try to combat the problem. However, the cells cannot pull in that glucose without insulin.
DKA is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who do not yet have other symptoms. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin, or surgery can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis in people with type 1 diabetes.
Although not common, people with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is rare and typically triggered by a severe illness.
What Are The Warning Signs Of DKA?
DKA usually develops slowly. But when vomiting occurs, this life-threatening condition can develop in a few hours. Early symptoms per the American Diabetes Association include the following:
- Thirst or a very dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- High blood glucose (blood sugar) levels
- High levels of ketones in the urine
Then, other symptoms appear:
- Constantly feeling tired
- Dry or flushed skin
- Nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
(Vomiting can be caused by many illnesses, not just ketoacidosis. If vomiting continues for more than 2 hours, contact your health care provider.)
- Difficulty breathing
- Fruity odor on breath
- A hard time paying attention, or confusion
Any of these symptoms should immediately be discussed with your doctor and they will let you know the next course of action, including treatment options or better yet, a trip to the ER may be in order especially if you can flush them from your system. Speaking of treatment options, what can you expect? Lets take a closer look.
So the other day I fielded a question about celiac disease and if there is a direct correlation between having celiac and type 1 diabetes. A great question as more type 1 diabetics seem to be diagnosed with celiac disease after their type 1 diagnosis. So what’s the deal with celiac disease? What is it exactly and what can be done to help alleviate the symptoms? Lets take a closer look!
What Is Celiac Disease:
Celiac disease is a digestive illness that occurs due to the ingestion of gluten. If you have celiac disease, your intestines cannot tolerate the presence of gliadin, which is a component of gluten. Gluten is present in wheat, barley, and rye. When a person with celiac disease eats foods with gluten, such as bread or cereal, their immune system inappropriately reacts to the ingested gluten and causes inflammation and injury to the small intestine. This results in symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, and weight loss, as well as an inability to absorb important food nutrients.
Celiac Disease And Type 1 Diabetes:
So what’s the deal when it comes to type 1 diabetes and a celiac disease diagnosis? While there doesn’t appear to be a direct link between type 2 diabetes and celiac that’s not necessarily the case when it comes to type 1.
Per the celiac disease foundation:
“The link between type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease was first established in the 1960s. The estimated prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes is approximately 8%, and about 1% in the general population. Most patients with both conditions have asymptomatic celiac disease, or symptoms that may be confused for symptoms of their diabetes. For this reason, and the significantly higher prevalence rate of celiac disease in diabetes patients, many doctors recommend getting screened for celiac disease after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, as well as celiac patients getting screened for type 1 diabetes.
A recent study in 2013, contributed to by Dr. Peter Green, a member of Celiac Disease Foundation’s Medical Advisory Board found that there were no standard uniform practices for screening type 1 diabetes patients for celiac disease. Of the facilities in the study that did screen for celiac disease, 60% of them only did so if there were symptoms present. The authors of the study suggested that a uniform protocol for screening should be in place, as well as a need for further education on the gluten-free diet in patients with type 1 diabetes for dietitians.”(1)
The unfortunate part of this is that once you are diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, you become prone to developing others. As for the signs, symptoms and treatment options, lets take a look.
Symptoms Of Celiac Disease:
Celiac disease symptoms typically involve the intestines and digestive system. They can also affect other parts of the body and children as well as adults tend to have a different set of symptoms. Those symptoms are as follows:
Celiac Disease Symptoms in Children:
Children with celiac disease can feel tired and irritable. They may also be smaller than normal and have delayed puberty. Other common symptoms include:
- weight loss
- abdominal bloating
- abdominal pain
- persistent diarrhea or constipation
- pale, fatty, foul-smelling stools
How To Diagnose Celiac Disease In Adults
Adults with celiac disease may experience digestive symptoms. In most cases, however, symptoms also affect other areas of the body. These symptoms may include:
- iron-deficiency anemia
- joint pain and stiffness
- weak, brittle bones
- skin disorders
- numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- tooth discoloration or loss of enamel
- pale sores inside the mouth
- irregular menstrual periods
- infertility and miscarriage
I fielded a question the other day on my Facebook page asking if I’ve ever head about a condition called HHNS or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.
HHNS can happen to people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes that is not being controlled properly. What is HHNS though, and is it really similar to DKA or is it just your typical run of the mill high blood sugar? Lets take a closer look!
What Is HHNS?
People over the age of 65 with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). Even though it is possible, it is very rare in people with type 1 diabetes can develop HHNS. HHNS is a medical emergency caused by a very high blood sugar, typically over 600 mg/dL due to poor control. Your kidneys try to get rid of the extra blood sugar by putting more sugar into the urine. This makes you urinate more and you lose too much body fluid, causing dehydration.
As you lose fluids, your blood becomes thicker and your blood sugar level gets too high for the kidneys to be able to fix. With the high blood sugar and dehydration there is also an imbalance of minerals, especially sodium and potassium in the blood. The imbalance of fluids, glucose, and minerals in the body can lead to severe problems, such as brain swelling, abnormal heart rhythms, seizures, coma, or organ failure. Without rapid treatment, HHNS can cause death.
Signs & Symptoms Of HHNS?
As mentioned earlier, HHS can happen to anyone, but is more common in older individuals who have type 2 diabetes. Symptoms may begin gradually and worsen over a few days or weeks. A high blood sugar level is a warning sign of HHS. I also found it very interesting that the symptoms are very similar to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) so its extremely important to be aware and if you suspect anything out of the ordinary, its imperative that you call 911 or get yourself into your doctors office.
- excessive thirst
- high urine output
- dry mouth
- warm skin that doesn’t perspire
- nausea, vomiting
- weight loss
- leg cramps
- vision loss
- speech impairment
- loss of muscle function
While I’ve heard this several times, is it the insulin that is causing the weight gain, or could it be something else? Perhaps a hormone that as type 1 diabetics we also stop producing since our beta cells have died off.
Have you ever heard of Amylin? Could the lack of this hormone be the reason why she is seeing an increase in her weight? What is amylin anyway, and is it something we should be concerned with if we are no longer producing it?
These are all great questions and honestly this was news to me as well as I’ve never heard of it. So lets take a closer look at what this little hormone does and if it has a direct impact on our overall health as type 1 diabetics!
Function Of Amylin?
So what is amylin? Or as its also called, pramlintide, and how can it help us? Amylin is a peptide hormone (insulin’s partner in crime) which is released by the beta cells in response to ingesting food. This hormone, is also released at the same time as insulin, but in different quantities and its primary function is to help aid in the digestive process by helping to control the rate of digestion.
The complete range of functions of amylin is still not fully known, but its main function has been determined to be to help to slow the speed at which food is digested and glucose is released into the bloodstream after a meal. Essentially, amylin keeps too much glucose from appearing in the blood in the first place.
Amylin accomplishes this in a number of ways. It decreases appetite by promoting a feeling of fullness, hence reducing food intake. It slows gastric emptying and inhibits the secretion of digestive enzymes, all of which slow the appearance of glucose in the blood after a meal and it also slows the secretion of glucagon, which otherwise causes additional glucose release by the liver at mealtimes.
In short, the release of amylin minimizes glucose spikes that often occur after meals. I know, frustrating right! I mean this disease is already hard enough, now this. Fortunately for us, we do have another option to replace this important hormone that has also died off with our beta cells so go ahead and keep on reading.
Its a fantastic question and was a test that was run on me to confirm my type 1 diagnosis. A c-peptide! What is it? What is the purpose and why do they use this particular test in order to confirm a type 1 diabetes diagnosis? Lets take a closer look!
What Is C-Peptide?
C-peptide, similar to the hormone insulin is produced in the pancreas. Both are released simultaneously from the pancreas where a compound called pro-insulin is split into two pieces.
As we are aware by now, Insulin is responsible for regulating the body’s glucose levels. Glucose, the body’s main source of energy, is a sugar that comes from foods. After a meal, our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream to give us the energy we need in order to fuel our bodies. Glucose levels in the blood rise after a meal and trigger the pancreas to make insulin and release it into the blood, and when insulin is released, so is C-peptide.
Although both are released into the blood stream simultaneous, C-peptide has zero effect on our blood sugar levels. That being said, it is extremely useful as its used as a marker of insulin production, since the pancreas typically releases C-peptide and insulin in about equal amounts.
In a nut shell, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate decreased insulin production.
Ok, so over the past couple of weeks, I’ve received several questions relating to the issues diabetics face in relation to kidney problems and how diabetes affects the kidneys, also known as nephropathy.
Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of renal failure, accounting for more than half of all cases of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Renal disease will affect between 20-40% of diabetics in their lifetime, so lets take a closer look at what its all about and more importantly, what we can do to avoid it!
Stop me if you’ve heard this one before, but as we’re aware, diabetes can affect many parts of the body, including the kidneys. In healthy kidneys, many tiny blood vessels filter waste products from your body. The blood vessels have holes that are big enough to allow tiny waste products to pass through into the urine but are still small enough to keep useful products (such as protein and red blood cells) in the blood.
High levels of sugar in the blood can damage these vessels over time if diabetes is not controlled. This can cause kidney disease, which is also called nephropathy (say: nef-rah-puh-thee). If your not well controlled and the damage is bad enough, your kidneys could stop working.
Signs And Symptoms Of Nephropathy:
Early signs and symptoms of kidney disease in patients with diabetes are typically unusual. However, signs and symptoms listed below may manifest when kidney disease has progressed:
- Albumin or protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
- Going to the bathroom more often at night
- High levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine
- Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
- Morning sickness, nausea, and vomiting
- Weakness, paleness, and anemia
The differential diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy are extensive, but they include the following in a patient with known type 1 and type 2 diabetes:
- Primary or secondary glomerular disease
- Renovascular hypertension
- Renal artery stenosis
- Renal vein thrombosis
- Multiple myeloma
- Cholesterol embolization
- Chronic obstruction
- Interstitial nephritis
So what’s the deal when it comes to metformin? We are all aware of the great job it does when it comes to helping type 2 diabetics better control their blood sugars and studies are even beginning to show that it can actually help you live longer compared to those without the disease, but what about the negative side effects? We were discussing on my Facebook page the other day about the long term side effects, so lets take a closer look!
What Is Metformin?
So what does metformin actually do?
Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (just to recap, a condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. It helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver.
Metformin also increases your body’s response to insulin, a natural hormone that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. I’m also beginning to see where metformin is used in addition to insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (again to recap, a condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) and fellow type 1 diabetics are actually gaining better control when introducing metformin to their regular treatment plan.
Metformin has been show to be a great/effective treatment option for helping control ones blood sugar, but what about the associated side effects that some experience? Lets continue reading.
Metformin And Lactic Acidosis:
Although rare, lactic acidosis is potentially the most serious of the side effects. The uptake of lactate by the liver is effected in a negative way. If the kidneys do not process the excess lactate the blood of the patient will acidify which can lead to a whole slew of problems. Most of which are similar to the feeling one gets after an intense workout. For example: anxiety, hyperventilation, irregular heart rate nausea and in some cases vomiting. This is the reason that it is generally only prescribed to people with a healthy kidney function. This side effect is potentially lethal and when you experience any of the symptoms you should immediately contact your doctor or a local hospital.
Metformin And Hypoglycemia:
Since the primary role is to reduce high levels of blood sugar, it has the potential to lower glucose below what is considered the normal levels. With minimal amounts of glucose in the bloodstream weakness, dizziness, shaking and sweating are all signs of low blood sugar. In a situation in which a person feels some or all these symptoms, they must raise the blood sugar immediately to avoid complications such as coma. Therefore, individual need to always have available hard candy or natural juice or glucose tabs to counter this side effect.
Over the past year plus, I’ve incorporated apple cider vinegar into my diet and I absolutely love it and here’s why! Apple cider vinegar benefits are plentiful. Its wide-ranging uses include everything from curing hiccups to alleviating cold symptoms, and some people have turned to apple cider vinegar to help fight high blood sugars, heart problems, high cholesterol, and weight issues. It’s effective for pretty much anything—your skin, your hair, your house, and even your pets can benefit from its qualities. Raw, organic, unfiltered and unpasteurized, apple cider vinegar is so much more than a salad dressing!
Alkalize Your Body With Apple Cider Vinegar:
There’s that word again, Alkalize! Some alternative practitioners recommend using apple cider vinegar to restore a healthy alkaline/acid balance. The theory behind the alkaline diet is that our blood is slightly alkaline (with a normal pH level of between 7.35 and 7.45) and that our diet should reflect this pH level. A diet high in acid-producing foods leads to lack of energy, excessive mucous production, infections, anxiety, irritability, headache, sore throat, nasal and sinus congestion, allergic reactions, and increased risk of conditions such as arthritis and gout.
Despite being an acidic solution, apple cider vinegar has an alkalizing effect on the body. As such, one to two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar in water as a daily health solution to help alkalize your body.
ACV For Heartburn:
Apple cider vinegar can also be very helpful in reducing gas and bloating. Just take a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar diluted in water or tea before a meal. It can also help alleviate symptoms of heartburn. Take a dose as soon as you feel heartburn symptoms coming on.
In all honesty, when it comes to turmeric as of a year ago, I didn’t even know what the stuff was. Several friends of mine kept telling me that I need to check it out and start to incorporate it into my diet. After 2-3 months of this, I decided to fire up the laptop to see what this was all about and boy was I glad that I did! Turmeric is amazing and here’s why!
What Is Turmeric:
Turmeric is a culinary spice widely used in Southeast Asia. Recent research reveals why this herb is such a powerful healer due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Turmeric powder is a bright yellow powder made by dry grinding of mature turmeric rhizomes (underground stems). The use of turmeric for coloring and flavoring food, for cosmetic purposes and for medicinal properties dates back to the ancient Vedic culture of India. Used in almost all Indian curries, this spice has almost no calories (1 tablespoon = 24 calories) and zero cholesterol. It is rich in dietary fiber, iron, potassium, magnesium and vitamin B6!
While studies concerning the health benefits are still premature, early evidence has linked it to a host of health benefits, most of which are based on its most active component, curcumin, the compound that also gives turmeric its yellow-orange color. Turmeric is full of powerful antioxidants, including curcumin, which are known to fight cancer-causing free radicals. Most research done on the health benefits of turmeric have been done using curcumin, not the whole turmeric root. While the studies are promising, more research, especially those using human subjects, need to be done. So far, what we do know is that turmeric is known to be anti-inflammatory, can help with managing pain, brain health support and liver detoxification, among several other benefits.
Researching some supplements the other days, I came across a little know powerhouse call chlorella. Chlorella, a blue-green algae, is one of the most nutritionally dense green foods on the planet. While it is debatable, many experts think chlorella offers just about every nutrient required by the human body, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, essential fatty acids, nucleic acids, chlorophyll and a full spectrum of phytochemicals.
Detox And Chlorella:
These days, toxins come at us from every possible angle: food, air, water, beauty products, cleaning supplies and even clothing. It’s important to give the body what it needs to detox from all the harmful substances it encounters each day. Chlorella has an amazing ability to bind with toxins like chemicals and heavy metals, and move them swiftly out of the body. These benefits are powerful and can have a definite positive impact on
Weight Loss Benefits?
Chlorella’s unique properties may also have the ability to lower overall body fat. One 2008 Japanese study showed chlorella can reduce body fat percentages. This may be due to its ability to aid fat metabolism and improve insulin sensitivity. Plus, when we replace nutritionally empty foods with powerful superfoods like chlorella, the body tends to crave less junk food because it feels more nourished.