Tag: hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome

Sep

26

What Is HHNS And Why Are Type 2 Diabetics More At Risk?

What Is HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome)?I fielded a question the other day on my Facebook page asking if I’ve ever head about a condition called HHNS or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.  

HHNS can happen to people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes that is not being controlled properly.  What is HHNS though, and is it really similar to DKA or is it just your typical run of the mill high blood sugar?  Lets take a closer look!

 

 

What Is HHNS?

People over the age of 65 with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS).  Even though it is possible, it is very rare in people with type 1 diabetes can develop HHNS. HHNS is a medical emergency caused by a very high blood sugar, typically over 600 mg/dL due to poor control. Your kidneys try to get rid of the extra blood sugar by putting more sugar into the urine. This makes you urinate more and you lose too much body fluid, causing dehydration.

As you lose fluids, your blood becomes thicker and your blood sugar level gets too high for the kidneys to be able to fix. With the high blood sugar and dehydration there is also an imbalance of minerals, especially sodium and potassium in the blood. The imbalance of fluids, glucose, and minerals in the body can lead to severe problems, such as brain swelling, abnormal heart rhythms, seizures, coma, or organ failure. Without rapid treatment, HHNS can cause death.

Signs & Symptoms Of HHNS?

As mentioned earlier, HHS can happen to anyone, but is more common in older individuals who have type 2 diabetes. Symptoms may begin gradually and worsen over a few days or weeks. A high blood sugar level is a warning sign of HHS. I also found it very interesting that the symptoms are very similar to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) so its extremely important to be aware and if you suspect anything out of the ordinary, its imperative that you call 911 or get yourself into your doctors office.

Symptoms include:

  • excessive thirst
  • high urine output
  • dry mouth
  • weakness
  • sleepiness
  • fever
  • warm skin that doesn’t perspire
  • nausea, vomiting
  • weight loss
  • leg cramps
  • vision loss
  • speech impairment
  • loss of muscle function
  • confusion
  • hallucinations

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